About Cardarine

Cardarine is a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARd) agonist to learn more about it visit What is Cardarine? page.

  • Generic/non-prop name: Cardarine, Endurobol
  • Developmental code names: GW501516, GW1516, GSK516
  • Trade/brand names: Cardar1ne
  • Chemical nomenclature: (2-methyl-4(((4-methyl-2-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-1,3-thiazol-5yl)methyl)sulfanyl)phenoxy)acetic acid
  • Synonyms: N/A
  • Molecular mass/weight: 453.497 g/mol
  • Legal status: Unscheduled
  • Oral bioavailability: (quantitative data unavailable)
  • Biological half-life: (quantitative data unavailable)
  • Methylated: N/A
  • Anabolic/androgenic ratio: N/A
  • Common cycle length: 6-8 weeks
  • Common dosages: 7-21mg /d
  • Dosing frequency: QD (as per studies)
  • Dosage timing: Personal preference (see anecdotal report section)
  • Taking on empty stomach/with food: Personal preference


Sample cycle:

Beginner: GW 7/7/14/14/14/14

Intermediate: GW 7//14/14/14/14/21

Advanced: GW 14/14/14/14/21/21/21/21

Synergy/stacks well with: AMPk activators (forskolin, alpha-lipoic acid, Na-R-ALA) and other lipolysis agents (MK-677), arachidonic acid, SARMs




The function of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta in energy homeostasis

Wolf G

Nutr Rev. 2003 Nov


A selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ agonist promotes reverse cholesterol transport

William R. Oliver, Jr., Jennifer L. Shenk, Mike R. Snaith, Caroline S. Russell, Kelli D. Plunket, Noni L. Bodkin, Michael C. Lewis, Deborah A. Winegar, Marcos L. Sznaidman, Millard H. Lambert, H. Eric Xu, Daniel D. Sternbach, Steven A. Kliewer, Barbara C. Hansen, and Timothy M. Willson


PPARδ: a dagger in the heart of the metabolic syndrome

Grant D. Barish, Vihang A. Narkar, and Ronald M. Evans

J Clin Invest. 2006 Mar 1; 116(3): 590–597


The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor β/δ Agonist, GW501516, Regulates the Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Catabolism and Energy Uncoupling in Skeletal Muscle Cells

Uwe Dressel, Tamara L. Allen, Jyotsna B. Pippal, Paul R. Rohde, Patrick Lau, and George E. O. Muscat

April 22, 2003


The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) β/δ agonist GW501516 inhibits IL-6-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation and insulin resistance in human liver cells

Serrano-Marco, E. Barroso, I. El Kochairi, X. Palomer, L. Michalik, W. Wahli, M. Vázquez-Carrera;

Diabetologia March 2012, Volume 55, Issue 3, pp 743-751


Role of AMP Kinase and PPARδ in the Regulation of Lipid and Glucose Metabolism in Human Skeletal Muscle

David Kitz Krämer, Lubna Al-Khalili, Bruno Guigas, Ying Leng, Pablo M. Garcia-Roves and Anna Krook

July 6, 2007 The Journal of Biological Chemistry


Regulation of Muscle Fiber Type and Running Endurance by PPARδ

Yong-Xu Wang, Chun-Li Zhang, Ruth T

August 24, 2004


A metabolomic study of the PPARδ agonist GW501516 for enhancing running endurance in Kunming mice

Wei Chen, Rong Gao, Xinni Xie, Zhibing Zheng, Haijing Li, Song Li, Fangting Dong, and Lili Wangb

Sci Rep. 2015; 5: 9884


Lipid Effects of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Δ Agonist GW501516 in Subjects With Low High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol

Characteristics of Metabolic Syndrome

Eric J. Olson, Gregory L. Pearce, Nigel P. Jones, Dennis L. Sprecher July 19, 2012


The Role Played by the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) Activator, GW501516, in Control of Fatty Acid Metabolism: A New Potential Therapeutic Target for Treating Metabolic Syndrome

Jandee Lee, and Woong Youn Chung

February 24, 2011


The PPARβ/δ Activator GW501516 Prevents the Down-Regulation of AMPK Caused by a High-Fat Diet in Liver and Amplifies the PGC-1α-Lipin 1-PPARα Pathway Leading to Increased Fatty Acid Oxidation

Emma Barroso, Ricardo Rodríguez-Calvo, Lucía Serrano-Marco, Alma M. Astudillo, Jesús Balsinde, Xavier Palomer, and Manuel Vázquez-Carrera; December 22, 2010


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) ligands inhibit growth of UACC903 and MCF7 human cancer cell lines

Elizabeth E. Girroir, Holly E. Hollingshead, Andrew N. Billin, Timothy M. Willson, Gavin P. Robertson, Arun K. Sharma, Shantu Amin, Frank J. Gonzalez and Jeffrey M. Petersa

Toxicology. 2008 Jan 14; 243(1-2): 236–243.

Published online 2007 Nov 4


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) ligands do not potentiate growth of human cancer cell lines

Holly E. Hollingshead, Renee L. Killins, Michael G. Borland, Elizabeth E. Girroir, Andrew N. Billin, Timothy M. Willson, Arun K. Sharma, Shantu Amin, Frank J. Gonzalez and Jeffrey M. Peters August 11, 2007


 Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and cancer: challenges and opportunities

Jihan Youssef and Mostafa Badr; Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Sep; 164(1): 68–82.


Induction of Metastatic Gastric Cancer by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptorδ Activation

Claire B. Pollock, Olga Rodriguez, Philip L. Martin, Chris Albanese, Xin Li, Levy Kopelovich, and Robert I. Glaze

Published online 2010 Dec 27


Rat carcinogenicity study with GW501516, a PPAR delta agonist

Geiger LE, Dunsford WS, Lewis DJ, Brennan C, Liu KC, Newsholme SJ

(2009). PS 895 -48th Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology. Baltimore: Society of Toxicology


Mouse carcinogenicity study with GW501516, a PPAR delta agonist

Newsholme SJ, Dunsford WS, Brodie T, Brennan C, Brown M, Geiger LE

(2009) PS 896 -48th Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology. Baltimore: Society of Toxicology


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